How is Africa's colonial economy structured?

Post-colonial Africa

Post-colonial Africa: Politics, Economy, Society

1.1 Why Africa is of particular interest

- Africa is a supplier of raw materials, colonial goods and human labor
- For 40 years the former colonies of Europe have been independent African states (today 53 states)
- Today the majority of Africans live in worse conditions than in colonial times

Paradoxes of Poverty:

- Why is there the largest number of "absolutely poor" countries (35 of 49 countries worldwide in 2002), even though they receive the highest level of development aid per capita (aid paradox)?
- Why is Africa over-indebted abroad and why is Africa's share of world exports falling constantly (marginalization in world trade), when precious mineral resources have been exported for centuries (raw material paradox)?
- Why is agriculture so underdeveloped (little mechanized and industrialized) that more and more food has to be imported from abroad in order to feed the people in states that are primarily agricultural countries in terms of their production structure (agricultural paradox)?

1.2 Three factors driving social, cultural and political change

The primary causes of poverty and underdevelopment in Africa were and are either

1. Endogenous (internal) factors, including the personal characteristics of political leaders

- Political decisions that have been made in the country itself by the politically responsible and that have come about through the choice between existing alternative courses of action
- Max Weber - Three types of rule (traditional rule, charismatic rule, rational, institutional, bureaucratic rule) - Especially in situations of upheaval, the form of charismatic rule has an eminently important function due to its exceptional mobilization and control performance

Charismatic leaders in post-colonial Africa:

- Gamal Abd el Nasser: born in Egypt in 1918, died in 1970; as colonel involved in the coup against King Faruk in 1952; from 1954 until his death Egyptian President; nationalized the Suez Canal in 1956; provoked the military defeat in the 1967 Six-Day War against Israel; propagated the non-aligned movement and "Arab socialism" ("Nasserism")

- Nelson Mandela: born 1918 in Umtata / Transkei; Arrested in South Africa in 1962 as an ANC underground fighter, sentenced to life imprisonment in 1964; during his 26-year imprisonment on Robben Island, he became a symbol of the African resistance to apartheid; Released in 1990, he became President of South Africa after the first free elections in 1994, until he gave up this post in 1997

- Downside: despotic and / or populist presidents - acting as individuals

at the head of clientelistic patronage networks the inherited colonial economic ones

Destabilized structures and terrorized civilians

- Jean Bedel Bokassa: born 1921, died 1996; from 1966-1979 President of the Central African Republic; became known for cruel excesses against school children and therefore sentenced to death in his own country after his fall in 1986, pardoned in 1993

- Mobutu Sese Seko: born 1930, died 1997; from 1965 until his flight, forced by rebels, in 1997, he was President and at times also Prime Minister (1966-1977) of Congo-Kinshasa and Zaire; he ruthlessly plundered his country and arbitrarily jailed or expelled political opponents, and ultimately plunged his country into political chaos.

2. Exogenous (external, foreign) factors, including world market-related processes of the exchange of goods, capital and ideas

- Political and economic effects that come from outside, i.e. from the international environment of Africa, and are beyond the control of the governments and societies of African countries
- Acting as "external shocks" or as "external achievements or innovations"
- The most important are world market prices for import and export goods

3. Structural factors, including historical, climatological and gender-related ones

Structural features

- Impact factors that are due to the geography, climate and physical properties of a country and that cannot be changed quickly or in principle politically (size of a country, location as a landlocked country (without access to the sea) or as an arid country with extremely low rainfall and fairly barren soil (Member of the group of states of the Sahel zone))
- Central themes of African history are the settlement of the continent, the coexistence with nature, the building of stable societies and their defense against attacks by peoples from more favored regions
- Factors: physical condition of the soil (poor in nutrients, often rich in forests and natural resources), geography and a murderous tropical climate, plague epidemics since the 14th century, slave trade and colonialism
- Centuries-old patriarchy had a formative effect on both parts of society, until patriarchal structures were only broken up through foreign influences (colonialism, world trade, Christianity) and new structural configurations of the state, primary communities and gender relations were made possible
- Women severely disadvantaged: falling behind cultures with equality

1.3 Fluctuating, true and false “worldviews” about Africa

- The great heterogeneity of the 53 African states is mostly not seen by Europeans, Africa as a cliché - The continent is often spoken of in toto (development differences between and in Djibouti, Angola, Burkina Faso and Cameroon are not taken into account)
- Hundreds of ethnicities, peoples and languages ​​on one continent
- The myth of the incompetent continent has crept into almost all global surveys of Africa
- Africa is often associated with rural poverty and children with hungry bellies - Africa is the only supply emergency that constantly needs relief supplies from abroad
- Dried out soil destroyed by soil erosion, Sahel zone threatened by increasing devastation (desertification)
- Greedy military junta (Nigeria until 1998, Togo), cruelly waged civil wars and guerrilla actions (Sierra Leone, Liberia, Algeria, southern Africa (Angola), the Horn of Africa)
- Ethnocide in Rwanda and other "tribal wars" ("ethnic clashes", "tribal conflicts")
- Ugly remnants and consequences of the apartheid system in South Africa (racist prejudice and trauma, high crime rate, high unemployment in cities like Johannisburg and Durban)
- Population growing too rapidly in relation to material resources for human survival ("overpopulation")
- Endless refugee flows to Europe (Africa as a refugee continent)
- Epidemics (malaria and AIDS) that rage here like in no other continent and threaten the future of many settlements and institutions
- Colonial goods such as coffee, cocoa, coconuts and peanuts, which generate low revenues and have contributed to "over-indebtedness" abroad
- Janus-headed basic pattern: Africans embody something threatening and desirable at the same time, evoke feelings of inferiority and superiority
- Africans objects of exploitation that civilized Europe is allowed to colonize
- Current discourse about the "correct" images of Africa: Distinction between "Afro-pessimists" and "Afro-optimists"
- There is a risk of closeness to cultural essentialism - scientific position to be rejected, which justifies behavior with "the essence" of a people or a nation and therefore claims these to be unchangeable
- With very few exceptions, the suffering populations - mostly the urban middle classes (students, teachers, lawyers, church representatives, human rights activists and trade unions) - have ousted (military) dictators and high-handed presidents for life and campaigned for reforms
- Africa's development prospects cannot be derived from the negative developments of recent years, but from the potential, reform forces, committed people in agriculture, industry, the service sector and those parts of the state elite who are ready for reform
- The overwhelming majority of African countries lack the potential for sustainable social and economic development "
- Quarter of all countries remain at a low income level with only limited development opportunities
- Another quarter of all countries in sub-Saharan Africa are stuck on a low income level with no long-term development opportunities
- Under current conditions, the last quarter has absolutely no development opportunities
- Losers (per capita income, investment rate): Togo, Niger, Guinea-Bissau, Sierra Leone and Liberia in West Africa, Burundi, Djibouti and Somalia in East Africa, Chad, Central African Republic and Congo (Kinshasa), the former Zaire, in central Africa and Madagascar and Malawi in southern Africa
- Colonial trauma is still having an impact today
- Important in the case of heterogeneity in Africa: Avoid generalizations, do not simply project trends into the future or extrapolate them linearly - The question is: What do we really know? How solid are empirical measurements and data?

1.4 The trauma of the Atlantic slave trade

- Three historical factors which together make up the great "turning point" in the modern history of Black Africa:
- Import of firearms
- Missionary work in large parts of Africa through Islam and Christianity
- Participation in the transatlantic slave trade as perpetrator and victim
- Transatlantic slave trade: Largest (forced) migration in history with a loss of about 29 million exported slaves to African people and about the same number of people who perished or killed themselves in the hunt and during transport

Four types of long-term effects of the slave trade

- Differentiation between demographic, economic, political, mental and psychological effects

- Demographic, economic, political effects: Depopulation of Africa and the migration caused by constant human hunts and permanent disruption of the agricultural cultivation and land use systems

1. Collective trauma

- Mental and psychological effects: collective traumas of societies that are carried over from generation to generation in myths, fairy tales and "stories"

2. Long-term demographic consequences

- "European slave trade" is the main cause of underdevelopment ": people were the scarcest factor of production in pre-colonial Africa, persistent slave hunts have contributed to severe depopulation (in addition to periodic famine, malaria and plague epidemics and droughts)
- The slave trade drove the strongest peoples to war and plunder and often drove the weakest tribes to flight just at harvest time - inhibited the production of autochthonous and exotic foods
- The slave trade made war and inter-ethnic violence a chronic condition
- The slave trade left many Africans with moral and ideological trauma

3. Long-term political consequences

- Trafficking in human beings had prevented the accumulation of the most valuable factor of production (labor)
- The ability of the traditional rulers to simply send disagreeable critics of the existing conditions into slavery had preserved the existing balance of power
- Caution: It should not be ignored that the process of total dehumanization through enslavement and sale was not the work of the Europeans alone, but is a collective crime in which Arab slave hunters were also involved alongside and often in cooperation with colonial Europeans and African rulers
- The continent's cultural and spiritual brutalization was not only carried out by the Christian-European axis, but also by the Arab-Islamic dimension (was equally devastating)
- The complicity of African rule in the destruction of societies south of the Sahara since the 15th century: House and war slavery was common in Africa, especially in areas that were more economically advanced (around the city centers of Jenne and Timbuktu in the Kingdom of Mali) where slavery had taken on a markedly exploitative character
- The slave trade cannot be compared with the ruinous effects of the Atlantic slave trade - the enslavement of a person stolen in the war usually only lasted a few years until the unfortunate person was either released or socially integrated into the family of his buyer and was also able to acquire civil rights and property

4. Long-term economic consequences

- Controversial how many people Africa actually lost to the slave trade - The most realistic estimate is 60 million people in four centuries
- The logic of the slave trade lay in the separation between collective and individual interests - Great men sold slaves to purchase goods which in turn could help them increase their personal following
- While Europe and North America profited greatly from the Atlantic slave trade, in Africa only chiefs, traders and feudal plantation and mine owners had a benefit enlarged a narrow gap to a wide gap
- Conclusion: The transatlantic slave trade was a lasting upheaval and deep turning point in the history of Africa, both because of its moral and emotional implications and because of its great influence on the further development of the plundered continent into a peripheral region of world trade
- The slave trade increased the already existing backwardness of Africa - The country south of the Sahara had already fallen behind technologically, but the transatlantic slave trade increased this backwardness

1.5 Colonial heritage - still an ambivalent condition for development

- In 1807 the British Parliament decided to abolish the transatlantic slave trade
- But Africans continued to be secretly sold throughout the century (3.33 million slaves overseas, which was about half of the slave exports of the 18th century)
- Many African political leaders opposed the abolition of the slave trade - had already become an integral part of a criminal international trading system and acted as collaborators of injustice and the first major systematic human rights violations in Africa
- The end of the Atlantic slave trade did not end suffering - the abolition of the slave trade provided justification for the ingenious continuation of the oppression by external rulers - the five European colonial powers (England, France, Portugal, Belgium and, until 1919, Germany), and by internal rulers, the "feudal" military aristocracy, who now increasingly used slaves on the new monoculture plantations for the cultivation of peanuts, palm oil and rice (even before the formal colonialism of the major European powers in Africa)
- Pseudo-justification to promote colonial conquest by Europeans - Ideology of colonial conquest was based on the idea that Africans are incapable of developing and defending their own institutions
- Europeans were presented with a picture of a continental interior, the inhabitants of which were hopeless savages - the only answer is direct annexation
- In the Republic of South Africa under the rule of the white apartheid politicians, these strange images have developed their unwholesome effect up to the present day
- It is not surprising that Africans wanted to free themselves as quickly as possible from their collective fate of centuries of foreign control (enslavement, submission to colonial rule with forced labor, compulsory taxation and disenfranchisement) and for a long time resisted any form of foreign rule
- Distinction between primary resistance (at the beginning of colonization directed against forced land grabbing) and secondary resistance (organized against certain forms of colonial exploitation during the colonial period)
- Hundreds of thousands of Africans died in punitive expeditions "by the colonial powers, but vivid memories of heroic resistance still form the emotional basis for the complicated process of" nation-building "

Four historical phases of the integration of non-European agricultural areas into the gradually developing capitalist world market:

1. Unregulated robbery and looting colonialism (The driving force in Europe was Portugal and Spain, later Holland and England)

2. Trade colonialism or mercantilism (around 1600-1880) more systematic exploitation and use of African soil and its people began, interest in African raw materials increased (gold, ivory and palm oil)

3. High imperialism (1880-1918) of the competing European industrial countries, which ended with the First World War, informal trade colonies were now joined by formal settler colonies in which white settlers from Holland ("Cape of Good Hope" in South Africa), England (Rhodesia, Kenya) , France (Algeria since 1830, Senegal), Portugal (Angola and Mozambique) and Germany (Southwest and East Africa)

- In Algeria, FLN (Front de Liberation National) fought for the country's independence for eight years (1954-1962)
- Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) only gained independence in 1980 and the mandate area South West Africa (Namibia) administered by South Africa (illegally) in 1990 - the result of the armed struggle of the "Liberation Movements"

4. Decolonization and liberation of the European colonies under international law (1956-1963):

- Fundamental change: Africans could no longer be denied the right to national self-determination and as sovereign states with equal rights under international law
The phase began when Sudan became the first African country in 1956, the Gold Coast in 1957 (renamed Ghana in 1960), in 1958 with Guinea (capital Conacry) the first francophone country and in 1960 seventeen other African colonies achieved the longed-for independence

- Question about the long-term effects of colonialism, which can still be felt today, and its significance for development issues in Africa today - Structural legacies of European colonialism, which served the overall goal of integrating Africa into the international division of labor:

1. Bureaucratic-authoritarian state - Without democratic legitimation, with artificial national borders, which often divided ethnic groups arbitrarily; weak in implementing administrative decisions;
2. Modern formal school and education system, especially for training the lower and middle civil service, the auxiliary troops of the colonial administration and the colonial armies;
3. Outwardly oriented material infrastructure, which was supposed to secure communication with world traffic and world market (the construction and construction of cities, mines, plantations, railways and ports were subordinated to the colonial rule of the exploitation of raw materials and the making of colonial profits;
4. Economy specialized in the production of colonial raw materialswhich was characterized by world market-dependent monocultures as well as seasonal migrant and wage labor from "informal economic sectors"

- Assessment of the "colonial heritage" (state, school, railroad and colonial goods, "citizen" (citizen) and "subject" (subject)) is highly controversial in international research

Three directions of interpretation:

1. Focus on the negative effects of colonialism: economic exploitation and dependence on the world market as a raw material supplier, social disintegration through artificial division into ethnic groups and political incapacitation

2. European colonialism is not a special turning point or upheaval in the history of the continent, but only a brief episode: Without a formative long-term effect, the Europeanization of economics and thinking had become irreversible with the permanent integration of the colonies producing for the colonial "motherland"; cultural autonomy and self-defined identity were a thing of the past

3. Colonialism as a deep, lasting upheaval in African societies, which has brought about the preservation of traditional power, the partial destruction of traditions, the de-solidarization of agricultural communities and psychological alienation, but also triggered useful impulses for modernization against will (plausible): Destruction of the (premodern) African agricultural production through the system of forced labor and the forced cultivation of "cash crops" in contrast to "food crops", also the organically grown division of labor between women and men was shaken and structurally changed

1.6 The importance of colonial schools and missions for the formation of new elites

- Schools in colonies (especially Christian mission schools) have a double function: founded in order to be able to function as cheap helpers with elementary formal education in colonial service (clerks, porters, drivers, cooks, etc.), pupils came with the emancipatory ideals of the French Revolution, Postulates of Christian charity and in contact with ideas of the Enlightenment, humanism and rationalism - had a formative effect on the first generation of "educated Africans"

- Long-term impact of the European school as the most important positive legacy of colonialism, more important than roads and ports, railways or mines
- Formation of "human capital" - the intellectual basis for "knowledge based society", the knowledge society of the 21st century
- Positive: The formal school of the Europeans acted on the one hand as an instrument of alienation from one's own past, but also functioned as a future-oriented institution for socialization, as an arena for mental adaptation to rational ways of thinking and behaving in western style - impulse for modernization, for the planned and rational development of the productive forces overseas Possessions
- Negative: "Inner colonization", expropriation of one's own consciousness through foreign language, foreign pictorial symbols, commandments, prohibitions, punishments and promises
- Instead of the correct Prussian official, the dominant type was the sadistic colonial official who did not know that he was being controlled or controllable and who did not take regulations and human rights so seriously
- The development of the western legal tradition (separation, competition and cooperation between ecclesiastical and secular power) was a complex process within Europe, the result of which cannot easily be transferred to other societies with different natural and social challenges
- "Constructive destruction" (Weber, Schumpeter): Two variants: Unintended destruction by colonial administration (goal: colonial profits) and deliberately planned civilization of the "primitives" by Christian missionaries (goal: destruction of magical customs)
- Ambivalence of the long-term effect of colonial school and Christian mission: imported Christianity of the European missionaries in the age of colonial imperialism acted as an attack on African civilization with its completely different world and gods view (ancestral beliefs, polygamous family life, fear of natural forces)
- Conclusion: The offer of modern formal school and university education was the main gateway to understanding the alien world of European modernity, was a necessary but not a sufficient set of instruments to cope with the existential upheaval
- The practice of the Christian mission school was the first act of globalization: escalated when, within only two decades after the end of the Second World War, the colonies were released or pushed into political independence and were now declared sovereign members of the international community with equal rights under international law Government and development were overwhelmed by the elites
- Colonialism forcibly ended the turmoil of the Atlantic slave trade and accelerated the historical work of social, economic and mental change (rationalization, modernization, adaptation, proletarianization)
- Destroyed old certainties and forced new identities on the path of negation among colonial subjects by becoming aware of their status
- Mental and cultural alienation determined internal relationship between the bourgeois "masses" (isolated from each other, land cultivators living in villages scattered) and the modern educational and administrative elite in urban areas - Classic "cleavage" (digging) at the end of the colonial era: literate bureaucrats in the cities who lived on the colonial surplus product of the farmers, market women and traders

Summary: The Paradigm of the African Crisis

Figure not included in this excerpt

Figure 1: The paradigm of the African crisis (Source: Tetzlaff, Rainer and Cord Jakobeit, 2009: Das nachkoloniale Afrika. MA Governance, Module 2.2, p. 43, Faculty of Cultural and Social Sciences, Fernuni Hagen.)

2 Community and society, ethnicity and culture, (state) classes and social relations - definitions and controversies

- Structuring of the African social world: world of states (sphere of the political), economic world (sphere of production, finance and trade)
- The question of dialectical connections between economics and politics has preoccupied social theorists for centuries and has produced numerous social theories from which the social analysis of an underdeveloped continent can also benefit
- Recognition that a demanding political and legal system of government (pluralistic liberal democracy) cannot simply be transplanted onto an "underdeveloped" social and economic base that has not yet learned to differentiate between the private and public spheres that do not know any parties or associations
- Finding: It takes a social maturation process so that legal political opposition is tolerated and relatively free press can operate (basis for politics based on the rule of law)
- The precarious balance between state and society has been a central theme in African studies for decades
- Components of societies: extended family, clan, "chiefdom" (chiefdom), ethnic group, religious movement, group or nation
- Society: Human associations with self-defined or externally defined demarcation from others; they are mentally constructed, often with political intent, and can therefore change their "cultural identity" relatively quickly
- Because of its great importance for current politics (genocide in Rwanda, the ethnocide in Sudan, "ethnic conflicts" in the Congo) it is important to deal more closely with terms and theories to capture the complex social and cultural world of Africa, so as not to avoid prejudice to sit up, Africa is the "continent of tribes"
- In Africa, too, "cultures" are more of a field of discourse or an arena in which central values ​​and institutions are repeatedly renegotiated and which depend on specific historical and political contexts

2.1 Basic concepts of the African social world

- Problem of structural heterogeneity - In Africa there are both the smallest ethnic-cultural units of a few families or clans and remaining "splinters" of language groups, as well as large peoples and nations comprising several million people and living in different states thanks to colonial demarcation
- Some are still quite homogeneous socially (nomadic tribes in Somalia), others are highly fissured or socially stratified (Muslim societies of the Haussa in northern Nigeria or the Kambata in Ethiopia)
- The controversial question as to when in Africa one can speak of socialization and "society" in the modern sense, if one generally understands by this a politically-legally-economically integrated group of people who are part of a central political authority (“state” with a monopoly of power and tax ) faces
- Observation: Process of increasing social differentiation through different groups of the working population
- Etymologically, the concept of society is derived from the spatial union of people
- Emerging bourgeois society (which arises fictitiously through a social contract between individuals) sees itself as a counter-conception to the legal and rulership order of the monarchical state, which invokes divine grace as a legitimation formula
- Today the most widely accepted theory to explain advanced industrial societies is the pluralism theory founded by systems theorists and liberals - society here means the regulated competition of power elites and veto groups for market and power shares, for business and educational opportunities
- "Society" in Africa before and after 1960 must mean something different from the structure and genesis of European civil society, whose ruling classes were already shaped by an interest in the accumulation of capital and the overcoming of feudalism and medieval guilds

2.2 On some specifics of African societies

- Definition of society: Ensemble of organized people who are held together by a specific "glue" of memories, values ​​and interests, so that they have an awareness of their togetherness (identity), which is reflected in milieu-specific institutions and boundaries to the outside world
- The more modern a society became, the more inevitable became the emergence of a (state) monopoly of power and taxes, which was the prerequisite for infrastructure investments in the general public interest
- Seven features distinguish African post-colonial societies from those in 20th century Europe:
- Greater diversity (heterogeneity) of the population (multitude of languages ​​and ethnicities in one state)
- Structural heterogeneity of production and trade relationships
- Vicious circle of poverty (measured against the wealth of industrialized countries)
- Great importance of neopatrimonialism and clientelism in social relationships between patron and supporters
- High appreciation of personal solidarity in the social sub-units "family" (descent group, clan, clan, ethnicity)
- Precarious hierarchical (undemocratic) relationship between tightly organized state power and socially highly fragmented society without autonomous institutions
- High appreciation of community (communitarianism) in contrast to the emphasis on the individual human rights of the individual (fixed value components of the patriarch as a family solidarity community characterized by the patriarchal)
- Similarities: In post-colonial societies in Africa and in those in other regions of the world, the political form of their organization is the sovereign state, formally have the right to national self-determination, are an integral part of world society and want to participate in the achievements of modernity

2.3 Social theories of Emile Durkheim and Hannes Wimmer: division of labor, solidarity and segmental societies as well as stabilizing and deviation-enhancing factors of social "evolution"

- Question about cohesion, i.e. the question of what holds society together "at its core" (Goethe), "cement of society"
- Question about the actors' own identity: How do they define their sacred values ​​and external limits, how do they differentiate between what is their own and what is foreign?
- Open societies: easily accept people from other cultures and integrate them (social inclusion)
- Exclusive societies: Strictly shield themselves from the outside based on moral, religious or other ideas (South African apartheid society of the white minority)

Four social formations

- The socialization process is meant in which the family community becomes more socially differentiated and larger through increasing division of labor and more permanent and stable through political integration (internally and externally)
- "band societies" or hunter-gatherer societies
- "segmentary lineage systems" ("tribes")
- "chiefdoms" (chiefdoms)
- "states" (modern, internationally recognized states with a monopoly of force)
- The more common type of community in Africa is segmentary society: ideal type of society made up of a simple repetition of equal parts; are no longer segmented internally, contain no more elementary parts, disintegrate immediately into individuals (Durkheim)
- Durkheim: Voluntary division of labor is the engine of social differentiation and civilization
- Division of labor between individuals and groups increases the feeling of mutual dependence on each other (solidarity)
- Organic solidarity: Social integration as a society is established through the increasingly branching networking of cooperative relationships between carriers of social functions

2.4 From "tribe" to, nation "- a social progress?

- "Chiefdom": Autonomous political unit comprising a number of villages or communities under the constant control of a Paramount Chiefs (Wimmer)
- Chiefdoms are also a necessary prerequisite for the formation of (African) states in pre-colonial times
- In Africa (and North America) only relatively few states emerged from numerous chiefdoms - only a few “strong chiefdoms” had formed
- Variants of the term evolution:
- Expression of a historical determinism, succession of stages of development to a higher level of civilization
- A term that does not want to depict the historical logic of real social processes, but rather promises to construct a causal connection between effective factors as a possibility of development, open-ended
- Six factors that can lead to a mutation or transition of a political system due to deviations in the structure of rule:
- Long-distance trade (enables monopolization of the possession of prestige goods for the benefit of the chiefs)
- Predatory wars (e.g. increase the supremacy of the chief in long-distance trade)
- Technological innovations (increase power differentials to competitors)
- Formation of (holy) centers or cities (increase the resources and prestige of rulers and free them from rural traditions)
- Stratification (formation of a social hierarchy from three layers: class of the noble, mass of the public free and class of war and debt slaves as well as people without relatives, are not legally competent themselves, strangers and impoverished tribal comrades - form the clientele of the ruler)
- Political leadership (chiefdoms represent in the process of the evolution of politics the phase of conversion from unstable "inclusion hierarchies" (e.g. tribal confederations) to "structural hierarchies")

Goal of "nation-building"

- Seriously desired by modern elites and urban middle classes, but rarely achieved
- Positive cases: Tanzania, Botswana and Ghana
- Negative cases (state collapse): Sudan, Somalia, Congo (Zaire), Sierra Leone, Liberia, Angola - Change from own traditions to modernity failed
- "Weak state" (resource-poor state dependent on foreign subsidies) or "Soft state" (corrupt, poorly assertive administrative state) are examples of unsuccessful "state-building" in the post-colonial era
- State consolidation and nation-building (the greatest challenges at the beginning of the independence phase meant complicated processes of change: theoretically they were mutually dependent, in practice they blocked one another, but not in all cases so often that blocked nation-state development has become a dominant trend in sub-Saharan Africa is

2.5 Modernization of post-colonial societies and stratification of the labor force according to the four economic sectors

- Culture: open dynamic structure
- Colonialism with its capitalist mode of production has produced a double cultural phenomenon in Africa:
- Partial dissolution and deformation of what is found by the carrot and stick (reward and violence)
- Simultaneous attempts to partially preserve these remaining structures after considerations of utility
- Result: Individual segments of the autochthonous population were dissolved, destroyed, transformed (e.g. the role of chiefs), others were deformed and remained (e.g. remnants of subsistence farming and migrant work)
- Consequence: Typical mixture of elements from traditional and modern, from capitalist and pre-capitalist relations of production
- All politically constituted societies of the present want to modernize, to survive and "develop" as part of today's global society
- Almost all third world countries were
- politically or economically wholly or as "semi-colonies" dependent on European colonial powers in their history
- Territories without their own sovereignty, which often had a long-term impact on the form and intensity of the associated integration into the international division of labor between states and peoples
- underdeveloped due to insufficient productive strength development and ecological crises (can no longer satisfy the minimal basic needs of their own population through their own efforts)
- Modernization: type of social change originating in the English industrial revolution of 1760-1830 and in the French political revolution 1789-1794 - industrialization and political democratization are part of modernization
- Modernization: permanent change through innovation, dissolution and rebuilding ("constructive destruction", Schumpeter)
- Depending on the way of life and production of working people, the following groups can be ideally distinguished in the working population (broken down into the three major economic sectors):

Agriculture, Industry and Services:

1. Primary sector (agriculture):

- Hunters, gatherers and nomads in survival spaces far from the market
- Soil cultivators (small farmers, cattle farmers (peasants) who only produce so-called "food crops" for their own needs and therefore live in a "subsistence economy"
- Small, medium and large-scale farmers who mainly produce and sell "cash crops" for domestic and world markets (progressive farmers)
- Tenants who use the land of others and have to cede part of the harvest proceeds to the landlord
- Migrant and seasonal workers who only do wage labor for a few months and who often come from other countries

2. Secondary sector (industrial economy):

- Industrial workers in the formal economic sector who are employed as wage workers in local or foreign companies (blue collar workers)
- Large entrepreneurs who have their own means of production, employ wage laborers (either local large entrepreneurs (national bourgeoisie) or multinational or transnational corporations (transnational bourgeoisie, "multis"))
- Local small and medium-sized entrepreneurs (SMEs) who act as sub-contractors to large companies as well as working for local markets
- Craftsmen who manufacture products for local markets with their own means of production and often through family work
- Professionals: experts with university degrees such as engineers, operations managers, scientists and experienced technicians

3. Tertiary sector (service economy):

- Merchants and traders
- Market women, some of whom are producers themselves
- bankers and financiers
- Civil servants and employees of semi-public service companies ("Civil Servants")
- Politicians, ministers, parliamentarians, party politicians and members of the military who together form the "bureaucratic bourgeoisie" ("state class")
- Development broker as an intermediary between city / country, foreign / domestic, center / periphery
- Professionals: teachers, lawyers, doctors, journalists, employees or freelance workers in state and private companies
- Employees of all kinds of companies, including churches, mosques and other religious institutions: segments of the "white collarworkers"
- Employees of NGOs and voluntary interest groups (Voluntary Organizations)
- To record the post-colonial social and economic world in Africa, a distinction between formal economic and social sectors and the informal sector is important - fourth economic sector
- More and more people cannot find permanent employment in formal economic sectors (with regulated wage and labor market systems) and have to earn a living in informal sectors

Characteristics of the informal sector

1. The statutory minimum wages, working time limits and social security regulations (longer working hours and lower wages) do not apply here - exploitation and self-exploitation complement one another
2. The qualification required for a "job" is lower than in the formal sector; certificates play a subordinate role; further training is only possible "on the job"
3. There is no formal legal security whatsoever for the duration and type of employment; personal trust is the basis of existence based on mutual obligations
4. The state is only marginally present in informal, often naturally developed markets ("rod in the window") - only intervenes when there is a threat of unrest or illegal hoarding of urgently needed consumer goods is to be ended

- Informal economy (shadow or parallel economy) works according to the rules of "informal politics" (patronage and client relationships are decisive, disregard of legal provisions is accepted) - Lack of separation of public and private spheres (typical for Western constitutional states, but especially for African states implemented in rudimentary form)

- Informal politics refers not only to informal political actions, but also to their results and procedures that exist or are being developed to achieve them (clientelism, corruption and the criminalization of politics)

2.6 Social classes (strata) of colonial and post-colonial societies

- Two main social groups in the process of modernization: peasants and bureaucrats

Conditions of farmers

1. Colonialism did not turn land farmers (subsistence economy with occasional exchange) into proletarians (wage workers), but tax-paying small farmers ("peasants") - semi-autonomous, semi-market-dependent
2. The reliable coverage of the minimum needs of the household is usually the decisive criterion, not profit maximization - they are more humane, but also more inefficient than capitalist modes of production
3. So today they are less integrated into the money economy than farmers in other parts of the world
4. Smallholder production is based neither on exploitation nor on the existence of classes; but farmers become peasants by marketing their products (use values). Have the power to refuse against external control, only debt changes the situation!
5. A post-colonial state is not a necessity for "peasants" society - it is "imposed" on it; i.e. conditions for its existence do not result from the constraints of society (as in bourgeois-capitalist society)

- "Peasants" strive to retain their autonomy as free land cultivators and to pay as few taxes as possible that they do not need for their own reproduction - Error: Without a post-colonial state that keeps the infrastructures functioning (roads, railways, ports, wells, energy systems) Farmers do not bring crash crops onto the world market

- In the process of decolonization, colonial rulers transferred political power to indigenous national elites who had the following characteristics:

- Differentiated from "the masses" by youth, high (western) education and relative wealth ("educated Africans")

- Sat between all stools: problem of alienation

- After 1960 mostly bureaucratic jobs, especially in cities ("civil service"; "military service")

- New elites quickly showed a tendency towards self-perpetuation and downward exclusion - preferred the presidential one-party system, rejected the imported multi-party system as "un-African"

2. 7 summary

- Modernization is a process of change in society as a whole that does not run synchronously at all levels of action - Methodologically sensible to decide which of the concrete sub-processes (dimension) of modernization or social change is involved in order to determine the strengths and deficits of the specific society to be examined to be able to

Six dimensions of social change in the context of modernization

1. Economic growth agricultural and later industrial production of goods and services - in contrast to stagnation and frugality in the context of subsistence farming (only satisfying needs, not striving for profits)

2. Social inclusion and integration of minorities, Strangers and new employment groups instead of exclusion and segregation

3. Expansion of political participation up to democratization instead of patriarchal tutelage

4. Expanding cultural experience towards
a) pluralism of values
b) multiplication and overlapping of individual roles
c) Shaping a public critical of rule

5. Psychological mobilization of the individual through experience of diversity, competition and accountability; as well as professional professionalization, especially among the urban middle classes and the state class

6. Flexibility of the gender ratio for more emancipation of women and more opportunities for women with regard to their horizontal and vertical mobility

- The modernization of African societies involves a very complex, far-reaching and lengthy restructuring process, the success of which is by no means certain

- Contrast between the urban state class and "farmers": State class interested in consolidating power and self-privilege, farmers want to escape political control and the skimming of their profits by the state and improve their social status through modernization inputs)

3 wars and ethnic conflicts (Kenya, Ethiopia, Sudan and Rwanda)

- Ethnic conflicts are not a specifically African phenomenon - The emergence of (western) modernity has made existing cultural differences in the developing countries visible since the Enlightenment, so that religious differences often turned into political hostility

Four political contexts in which ethnicity plays a role in society:

1. Political competition (election campaigns) between political parties with massive supporters in specific settlement areas for votes
2. Informal competition in the sphere of state rule between members of functional and educational elites for participation in political power, administrative influence over the state president and for participation in state assets and state benefices
3. Promotion of the accession of ethnic members in war alliances, whereby proximity to violence is palpable - belonging to the "right" ethnicity can make the difference between life and death (Rwanda, Burundi or the Congo)
4. In (rural) working communities and (urban) civil societies, ethnic differences are politicized on questions of "legitimate" access to land, water and other survival resources


End of the reading sample from 65 pages