What is a polymer battery
LiCx, Conductive polymer or gel LiMOx
|Other names|| Li-polymer battery, solid-state lithium battery|
|application|| The originally planned development as a traction battery has so far failed due to the low electrolyte conductivity. Li-polymer batteries have been used in portable computers and cell phones since 2000. Since the cells are generally manufactured as foil batteries, the more favorable form factor compared to round cells gives them an advantage in the field of portable devices. The development focuses on improving the conductivity and stability of the polymer electrolyte.|
Simplified electrochemical reaction equations:
Lithium forms so-called intercalation compounds with certain types of graphite, i.e., deposits of ions in the layer lattice of the graphite crystal, in which the ion is formally discharged but does not form a chemical bond. In the positive electrode, too, there are intercalation compounds of lithium in certain oxides with layer structures, for example manganese oxides. The positive electrode consists of a metal oxide (MOx ‘), in which a certain number of Li-ions can be reversibly stored between the levels of the crystal lattice (LiyMOx). In practice, mainly LiCoO is used2, partly LiNixCoyO2 and to a lesser extent LiMn2O4 used. LiNiO2 was also used on a trial basis, but was not found to be sufficiently stable, especially at elevated temperatures. The substitution of cobalt by nickel results in a lower price (cobalt is approx. 10 times more expensive than nickel), and on the other hand, the realizable capacity per gram of cathode material is higher: LiCoO2 = 140 to 170 mAh / g; LiNi0,8Co0,2O2 = 180 to 200 mAh / g.
The charge / discharge equation is:
The system is identical to the Li-Ion battery, with the exception of the electrolyte. Gel electrolytes or polymer solid electrolytes are used. In addition to ion transport, the polymer electrolyte also serves as a separator (electrical separation of positive and negative electrodes) and as a flexible composite material that holds the system together without external pressure. Plastic-laminated aluminum foils are sufficient as a housing to protect against environmental influences. In these foil batteries, the weight proportion of the housing material is extremely low.
|Particularities:|| One tries to compensate for the poor conductivity with thin layers and large areas.|
|Advantages disadvantages||Advantages:High energy density. Easy production of any dimensions. Safer than the Li-Ion system. Absolutely leak-proof. Comparatively high cell voltage.|
Disadvantage: Poor conductivity at low temperatures. No reversible overcharge reaction. At present (2001) the cycle stability compared to Li-ion cells is worse.
Dr. Jens Tübke
Tel .: (0721) 4640-343
Fax: (0721) 4640-111
Fraunhofer Institute for Chemical Technology
Telephone (0721) 46 40-0
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