RSS is funded by the Ford Foundation

The Ford Foundation, a philanthropic facade of the CIA

Henry Ford, a militant anti-Semite who had the "Documents of the Elders of Zion" printed and published "The International Jew" [1], founded the Ford Foundation in 1936. As a legendary figure in the auto industry, he supported all totalitarian projects that existed during the 20th century: before 1933 he was financing German National Socialism; In 1938 Hitler awarded him the Great Cross of the White Eagle Order while he held a large part of the capital of IG-Farben, manufacturer of the Zyklon-B. During the 30's he also built the first car factories for Stalin in Gorky and during the 50's and 60's he continued to produce all vehicles for the North Vietnamese Army in the USSR.

Grand Cross of the White Eagle Order Awarded by Henry Ford on July 30, 1938

Nonetheless, it wasn't until after his death that the foundation peaked by receiving $ 70 million from the Ford Works, making it the largest philanthropic corporation in the world. As Henry Ford II, the new Chairman of the Board of Directors, put it, "1949-1959 marked a turning point in the history of the Ford Foundation".

This happened when the US rose to become the first world power. In Washington, the former US ambassador to the Soviet Union, General Georgo F. Kennan, launched a campaign to convince his compatriots of the fact that the red threat is greater than the Nazi threat, in which he persuaded President Truman to leave the country not to disarm, but better to hide the US war machine and prepare for a new confrontation.

He also convinced War Undersecretary John J. McCloy not to dissolve the secret service that was active during WW2, but to adapt this service to the new times. He is the theorist who promoted "stay-behind" tactics, a network originally formed of Nazi and Fascist agents who were supposed to stay behind the front lines when the Reich collapsed and which were later used by the Anglo-Americans to fight communists Influences in Europe continue.

Likewise, a group of industrialists around the lawyer H. Rowan Gaither Jr., who were informed about the dismantling of the research and development services of the War Secretariat, bought them up and renamed them Rand Corporation. (Rand is an acronym for Research And Development).

After enforcing all of this, Kennan created a permanent and secret structure of the state apparatus by amalgamating it with the National Security Act passed by Congress in 1847. He institutionalized the CIA, the National Security Council and the United General Staff (Inter-Army Joint Staff / today Joint chiefs of staff). This group also had a public intervention plan, operated by General George C. Marshall, presented as a loan for the reconstruction of European states, under the auspices of Washington, which Paul G. Hoffman was entrusted to implement.

John McCloy

The US and the USSR confronted each other in a relentless war, not directly on the military battlefield, something they avoid, but rather in a political, intellectual and social one. Your successes in these fields, as well as the conquered areas, are more of a symbolic victory. US foundations, above all the Ford Foundation, are Washington's "soldiers" in this cold war.

The new financial dimension achieved by the Ford Foundation in 1947 opened her appetite. In order to redefine the objectives, the board of directors decided during the autumn of 1948 "to commission a detailed study from competent and independent persons, which should serve as a guideline ... could be used. "

The commission that was set up for this purpose was headed by H. Rowan Gaither Jr., who had just created the Rand Corporation thanks to the bank guarantees from the Ford Foundation. Gaither was a manager at MIT during the war and had connections with physicists working on the Manhattan Project [2]. Following the advice of this commission, the Board of Directors appointed the Director of the Marshall Plan, Paul G. Hoffmann, President of the Foundation, a position he assumed on January 1, 1951. In the opinion of the journalist Volker R. Berghahm, this brought "the most comprehensive international task created for the foundation by the Gaither Report" [3]. In terms of structure, parallel to the stay-behind network in the political field and the Marshall Plan in the economic field, the Ford Foundation would be the cultural branch for US influence networks in Europe.

Nevertheless, in spite of all appearances, the foundation, in the period from 1946 to 1948, is not only an additional tool for the apparatus Kenan referred to, but it is also a place of retreat. Within the US leadership elite that favored the Korean War, the father of the Cold War hiked the path of the extreme right, supported by the fearful theorist Paul H. Nitze. Meanwhile, domestic political life is drowning in a "witch hunt" led by Senator Joseph McCarthy.

Most of the foundations that flourished at the end of the war spent a large portion of their budget on national programs: from 1951 to 1960, the Ford Foundation spent $ 32.6 million on educational programs, $ 75 million on business and management teaching activities, and around 300 million in hospitals and medical schools. In spite of everything, some executives wanted to direct the activities towards the international arena.

A first success goes to the Free Russia Fund, the management of which was of course entrusted to the Cold War father, General George F. Kennan, who found a way to extend his career. The budget was US $ 200,000. In July 1951, the foundation donated $ 1.4 million to the Free University in West Berlin. This university was created in 1948, because at that time the oldest university in Berlin was in the Soviet sector and had been "Stalinized".

In the 1951 annual report, Henry Ford mentioned "creating peace conditions". This program will aim to "alleviate tensions exacerbated by ignorance, envy and misunderstanding" and "increase judgment and discretion both in the United States and abroad". Hoffman created a team devoted entirely to promoting this idea of ​​"terms of peace".

Gathered around him were Rowan Gaither, Milton Katz, his former assistant in the administration of the Marshall Plan (ECA), and Robert M. Hutchins of Chicago University. On January 1, 1952, the team was strengthened by another advisor to the ECA, Richard, M. Bissel jr. On July 15, 1952, the Ford Foundation's budget, which was dedicated to international projects, was $ 13.8 million, half of the amount allocated to national programs.

Richard Bissel Jr.

In March 1952 Richard M. Bissell drafted a 16-page paper entitled "To create conditions for peace" in which he set the guidelines for the future program. According to this document, "the aim of the foundation should be to contribute to the creation of a scenario in which the West should be able to negotiate a just and honorable peace with the East thanks to a new position of military strength - in implementation".

This will go through a "disarmament debate" and result in a negotiation process that creates "favorable public opinion" for that process. Bissel rejects the idea of ​​a direct confrontation, but he neither believes in the possibility of disarmament nor in real peace. Instead, he believes that "it is possible to live in the same world as the Russians without entering into a war, even with regard to the deep and persistent differences in mentality and interests". For this he creates a doctrine approximating the "peaceful coexistence" that Kruschtchow had formulated after the death of Stalin in 1956.

Bissell's reluctance to act is similarly applied at the national level: in his view, "the nature of prevailing opinion in America is too tense and too emotional, too close to a religious war". In this way he is confronted with McCarthyzism, but recommends being prudent. He believes that any alleged action around the idea of ​​disarmament could be internally misunderstood as long as public opinion is not prepared to think of a system in which "there could be neither war nor peace". Bissel suggested that the Ford Foundation should not openly allow itself to be drawn into such a struggle, but that it should try to contribute its ideas by collecting data and reaching out to experts with international ties. In this context, Hoffman joined former Secretary of War, John J, McCloy (who served as President of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, predecessor of the World Bank) and moved to the Foundation, bringing with him his advisor, Shepard Stone.

According to Volker R. Berhahn, the Ford Foundation Initiative, from its very first origins, has been, in a very subtle way, something more than simply developing a "counterweight" against McCarty's self-embodied anti-communism or the fight against the Cold War. In view of the fact that the USA had transformed itself into a world power and that world public opinion was not yet ready to face the challenges ahead, the goal was to create a popular basis for a democratic foreign policy, that of the elites of the East -The coast could be implemented and to ensure that these do not lose their feet when they are confronted with new populist and isolation policies.

When he started in the summer of 1952, he got involved with Dwight D. Eisenhower, a candidate for the presidential election, in the hope of receiving the seat of foreign minister in the new administration. A Foundation team, led by Shepard Stone, designed the Republican presidential candidate's program in no time at all, exploiting the Democrats' weaknesses.

The attempt to forge an alliance failed and when he moved into the White House, Eisenhower appointed John Foster Dulles as his foreign minister. His brother Allen Dulles became boss of the CIA where he had the difficult position to develop the "rollback" strategy for Central Europe with regard to the USSR [4].

These appointments provided a new cover for the projects of Hoffman, Kennan, Stone, McCloy and Milton Katz, who continued to multiply their contacts with liberal intellectuals and experts on international challenges in order to develop a more diplomatic strategy towards the USSR. During these meetings, ideas emerged that non-aligned states in particular could form a good basis for pilot projects designed by the Foundation.

In view of the files that contained the correspondence of the various persons in charge of the foundation, John J. McCloy asked himself at this time whether "the work you were doing would not be more difficult (...) than governing Germany or closing a European community establish".

Finally, thanks to the various contacts, those in charge of the foundation were able to see it as a "stimulating element of direction" to reconsider the Soviet-American relationship based on the final report by McCloy and Stone.

According to this document, Western Europe should be a key region whose institutional base would be strengthened and where the Ford Foundation "could usefully sponsor the creation of an institution, or set of institutions, devoted to the study of problems affecting the." European Community concern, dedicate. " This project is called the Program for Peace Conditions. An advisory committee was formed, chaired by McCloy, and Shepard Stone assumed the role of director.

One of the goals was to develop a method that would allow "the support of socialists in Europe for international peace". To this end, the foundation should "consider the idea of ​​recruiting socialist masterminds from these countries, men with standing in their own parties, who would have to investigate problems of coexistence and propose solutions"

The program provokes personal ambitions. When the battle of influence is over, it will come under the jurisdiction of the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) [5] and Shepard Stone transformed himself into a key element by serving as the Ford Foundation's international and European affairs director.

Whatever happens, the Foundation is a tool that every ministry wants to use. On May 5, 1951, Hans Speier of the Rand Corporation sent Rowan Gaither a memo in which he stated that the Foreign Ministry and the Civilian High Commissioner for Germany wish to conceal their support for organizations in West Germany in such a way that they cannot be recognized as a regulation from Washington. So they try, together with the CIA, to find ways that facilitate the indirect transfer of funds.

On March 20, 1952, Milton Katz circulated a memo within the Board of Directors of the Foundation in which he recalled the special importance of Europe for US diplomacy. According to this memo, Europe could only be considered "in a constructive way if it is a member of the Atlantic Community". In this sense it is important to contribute to the liberation "of the extensive Franco-Italian trade links from the stranglehold of communism".

Katz then lists a number of Ford Foundation projects, such as "creating an equivalent to the Committee for Economic Development in continental Europe". He concludes with a list of people who could do this at the Foundation: Jean Monnet, Oliver Franks, Hugh Gaitskell, Geoffrey Crowther, Robert Marjolin, Dirk Stikker and Dag Hammarskjöld.

In May 1953, Rowan Gaither drafted a memo calling for a new principle: the foundation should avoid "whatever might be an extension or repetition of effective government or other institution action". After all, he continues, "some of the most important opportunities for the Foundation (...) may indeed be to complete, stimulate and improve the activities of others, especially the government". The link the US Government / Ford Foundation find here is how they work from now on.

With the end of McCarthyism and the beginning of peaceful coexistence, the debate in Washington calms down. The Ford Foundation is no longer seen as an alternative to the CIA, but rather as a partner. Richard Bissel Jr. gave up his seat in the Foundation to take operational direction of stay-behind instead, while the Ford Foundation assisted the CIA in several large-scale operations.

She was replaced in funding the Congress for Freedom in Culture and hired David Lerner and Raymond Aron, a key figure in Congress, to study the failure of the European Defense Community Treaty in France. It financed the Hungarian Philharmonic Orchestra, composed of musicians who had been forced into exile by Stalinism and to whom the CIA wanted to present this as a symbol of a free world.

She also funded the American Committee on United Europe (ACUE), a front-line association for the CIA tasked with supporting the formation of a federal Europe in line with Washington's interests. ACUE is run by the former director of World War II intelligence and its vice president is a founding member of the CIA.

The activities that the Ford Foundation is taking with the Free Culture Congress are possible, Gremion explains, given the proximity between the actors employed by both institutions. Like Congress, the Ford Foundation understands "Liberals" (according to the American sense of the term) as belonging to the non-communist left - as / "A tool for government-free diplomacy, being the job of their leaders (in the field of Art) is to present a different image of US culture, away from the common image of a popular mass culture. "/

With this in mind, / "The Ford Foundation has put its impulses into the network of a visible practice of patronage right from the start" /. In the economic field, the Foundation's initiative / "instilled in the reform trends of the New Deal" / which in turn receives benevolent support from the intellectuals of Congress, who generally support planning and the welfare state.

Finally, it is geared towards the development of the social sciences: Rowan Gaither estimates that one day the social sciences can expect just as brilliant results in the social field as the engineering sciences today in the technical field. The Ford Foundation favors the funding of the social sciences as an enhancement (on top of) of the humanities and medicine. It promotes university and academic exchange, as well as the creation of new institutions: it finances the Center of European Sociology by Ramon Aron and the network of planned economists by Bertrand de Jouvenel. [6].

His presence is so discreet that, according to a memo by Shepard Stone after a trip to Europe in 1954, the Foundation enjoys great approval "even in circles of the extreme left of the British Labor Party, the German SPD and numerous left-wing intellectuals in France" . The admiration is mutual: Shepard Stone feels strongly attracted to European culture, which he contrasts with popular American culture, and he feels closer to the intellectuals in Congress that, after the criticism of communism, "they recognize the value and virtues of individual freedom and to appreciate a free society ". That is why the finance magazines are very close to congresses, such as Encounter, Preuves y Forum.

After a few months of internal conflict, Shepard Stone, in mid-1956, became the director of the entire European program of the Ford Foundation. The multiple activities of the Ford Foundation were very extensive. Stone requested an additional $ 5 million from the budget just for the European program. The Hungarian and Polish revolutions of 1956, which were suppressed by the Soviets, convinced all shareholders to agree to the request.

This money allowed refugees, coming from Hungary or Poland, to help and to create structures to receive them. The Ford Foundation also organized training courses and study programs for scientists who were invited to the USA and Western Europe from the Warsaw Pact. There was always a kind of perverse game, as it was preferred by Special-Services: The CIA expected agents from the economists, social scientists and experts invited by the Ford Foundation to recruit, while the KGB took the opportunity and sent out capable elements for American know-how -How to get.

At the same time, Japan started English language programs, US studies, and contact programs between Japan and Europe. The Ford Foundation's philanthropic diplomacy spanned the world. She carried the promotion of US culture everywhere and tried to get the non-aligned states on her side. In Africa, the treaty motivated the establishment of numerous aid programs for this region, especially in Algeria, for rapprochement with Moscow in relation to some of the recently independent countries. In the same way, an agricultural program was set up in India with the help of European investors that convinced Shepard Stone to set up Ford-like foundations.

At the university level, the Ford Foundation funded St. Antony’s College in Oxford in 1959, specializing in human sciences. The European Center of Nuclear Research (ECNR / European Center for Nuclear Research) also received subsidies in 1956, as did the institute run by the Danish nuclear physicist Nies Bohr. Thus, with the approval of the CIA, the Foundation brought delegations of Polish, Soviet and even Chinese scientists, officially and as part of the "scientific dialogue", to Denmark. At the same time, Oxford University even received a $ 1 million grant in 1958, as did Churchill College of Cambridge.

In France, in 1959, under the direction of Gaston Berger, "la maison des sciences de l’homme" received $ 1 million for the creation of a social science research center led by university professors such as Fernand Braudel.

The 1966 and 1967 revelations of the CIA funding of the Congress for Freedom of Culture discredited the Ford Foundation. The idea of ​​a connection between the Ford Foundation and the American Secret Service exceeded all boundaries. But beyond that, the sum total of the so-called philanthropic activities carried out by the Ford Foundation in Europe, which can now be seen from a new perspective, is: Wasn't it an impressive operation of American cultural influence?

"Why the Ford Foundation finances the protest", by Paul Labarique, translation by Ralf Hesse, Voltaire network, April 19, 2004.

[1] The International Jew - The World's Foremost Problem

[2] Pierre Grémion, Intelligence de l’anticommunisme, Fayard, 1995.

[3] Volker R. Berhahn, America and the intellectual cold wars in Europe, Princeton University Press, 2001.

[4] The "rollback" strategy is to force the Russians to withdraw from positions in Central Europe. It is the opposite of the containment strategy, which is to infiltrate the status of the existing troops and impede Soviet expansionism. The "rollback" strategy was replaced by the "containment" strategy after the collapse of the USSR.

[5] On May 6, 1953, the Council on Foreign Relations organized a seminar, funded by the Ford Foundation, dedicated to US-USSR relations. Participants were: John J. McCloy (President), Henry L. Roberts (Research Secretary), John Blumgart (Rapporteur), Henry L. Roberts (banker / investor), Robert Amory (CIA), Robert Bowie (Department of State), McGeorge Bundy (Harvard), Merle Fainsod (Harvard), George S. Franklin Jr. (CFR), Howard Johnson (Ford Foundation), Devereux C. Josephs, J. Robert Oppenheimer (Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton), Dean Rusk ( President of the Rockefeller Foundation), Shepard Stone and Henry M. Wriston (President of the Brown University)

[6] Note to the editor. There must be a problem of understanding here, since Bertrand de Jouvenel was an economist and philosopher, but as a kindred spirit to Friedrich v. Hayek was by no means inclined to a planned economy, even though he wrote about the welfare state. As such, he was also involved in founding the "Societe du Mont Pelerin".