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Hospitaller Orders Lastly, there are the purely hospitaller orders whose commanders, however, claimed the rank of knights though they had never been in battle, such as the Orders of St.Lazarus of Jerusalem and of the Holy Spirit of Montpellier.Including under this term every kind of brotherhood of knights, secular as well as religious, historians of the military orders have enumerated as many as a hundred, even after eliminating the apocryphal and stillborn.This great number is explained by the eagerness with which the Middle Ages welcomed an institution so thoroughly corresponding to the two occupations of that period, war and religion.Against these pagans a crusade had been preached; but, the temporary crusaders having made haste to withdraw, it became necessary, as in Palestine, to supply their place with a permanent order.This order adopted the statutes, the white mantle and the red cross of the Templars, with a red sword as their distinctive badge, whence their name of Ensiferi.

Military/Hospitaller Orders Contemporary with these purely military orders, others were founded at once military and hospitaller, the most famous of which were the Hospitallers of St.

The Lesser Regular Orders There is mention in the twelfth century, in Castile, of an Order of Montjoie, confirmed by Alexander III (1180), but difficult to distinguish from the Order of Calatrava, with which it was soon amalgamated.

In 1191, after the siege of Acre, Richard I of England founded there in fulfilment of a vow, the Order of St.

The same fate befell the German Order of the Christian Militia, projected (1615) under Paul V ; the Order of the French order of The Magdalen for the suppression of duelling (1614); and the Order of the Conception of Our Lady, the statutes of which, drawn up by the Duke of Mantua and approved by Urban VIII (1623) have remained a dead letter. The orders of any historical existence may be reduced to three categories: (a) The Greater Regular Orders; (b) The Lesser Regular Orders; (c) The Secular Orders.

The Greater Regular Orders The great military orders had their origin in the crusades, from which they retain the common badge of every order of knighthood -- the cross worn on the breast.

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