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like much new mathematics were not welcomed by all.
In 1299 there was a law in the commercial center of Florence forbidding their use; to this day this law is respected when we write the amount on a check in longhand ., undergoing a number of changes on the way.
The Jesuits were equipped with the knowledge of local languages as well as mathematics and astronomy that were required to understand these Indian needed these texts to understand the local customs and how the dates of traditional festivals were fixed by Indians using the local calendar (panchnga).
How the mathematics given in these Indian ancient texts subsequently diffused into The English-speaking world has known for over one and a half centuries that Taylor series expansions for sine, cosine and arctangent functions were found in Indian mathematics / astronomy / timekeeping (jyotisa) texts, and specifically in the works of Madhava, Neelkantha, Jyeshtadeva, etc.
And finally an important point for those who maintain that the concept of zero was also evident in some other civilisations: "Did you know that Vedic priests were using the so-called Pythagorean theorem to construct their fire altars in 800 BCE?
; that the differential equation for the sine function, infinite difference form, was described by Indian mathematician-astronomers in the fifth century CE?
This reform was needed to solve the latitude problem of European navigation.The squiggles used for 4 to 9, however, are clear ancestors of the numbers we use today.These symbols were gradually taken up by Arabs and came to Western attention in the 13The translation of De numero Indorum slightly predates the man who is credited with introducing the system to the West. In the comments in his book Liberabaci, written in 1202, he states that " pages 227-228. Mohammed ibn-Musa al-Khwarizmi, ..., who died sometime before 850, wrote more than a half dozen astronomical and mathematical works, of which the earliest were probably based on the In this work, based presumably on an Arabic translation of Brahmagupta, al-Khwarizmi gave so full an account of the Hindu numerals that he probably is responsible for the widespread but false impression that our system of numeration is Arabic in origin. Many Arab authors took up the subjects communicated to them by the Hindus and worked them out in original compositions , commentaries and extracts.Because of this book with the Latin translations made a false inquiry that our system of numeration is arabic in origin.The new notation came to be known as that of al-Khwarizmi, or more carelessly, algorismi; ultimately the scheme of numeration making use of the Hindu numerals came to be called simply algorism or algorithm, a word that, originally derived from the name al-Khwarizmi, now means, more generally, any peculiar rule of procedure or operation.