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One significant matter that distinguishes Huntingdon’s book from Fukuyama’s is the fact that religion features substantially in the political analysis.
Reflecting the secularisation theorists, Fukuyama earlier claimed that “Religion has thus been relegated to the sphere of private life – exiled, it would seem, more or less permanently from European political life except on certain narrow issues like abortion”. This analysis, even at the time, was somewhat odd given the connections between neo-nationalisms and ethnic religiosities, the two decades of Christian political influence in the United States, and of the burgeoning fervour of the Islamic regime in Iran.
A thinking of the event is no doubt what is most lacking from such a discourse.” [Derrida, 1994, 62f.]  Carl Raschke, (Grand Rapids: Baker, 2008), 15f.  George Soros, cited in Marc Breslow, ‘George Soros: Beware Market Fundamentalism’ (1999), consulted 05-01-01.However, as Nicholas Lash recognises when pursuing reflections on the difficulty of meaningfully generating a critical hope, not all the voices of the late twentieth-century have been so despondent. For instance, with the te aring down of the Berlin Wall in 1989, and the impending collapse of Soviet Communism and the Cold War, Francis Fukyama in “triumphalistic notes” confidently announced ‘the end of history’. By this he did not mean that the process of change that we experience as time had come to an end.Rather, following the early C19th German philosopher Hegel, he was thinking about the ‘meaning’ of things or the meaning of ‘history’. as a single, coherent, evolutionary process”, and it is this which has come to its end, its fulfilment, its goal at least in ideological terms. According to Fukuyama, that goal is “the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the final form of human government.” It is important to note that, for Fukuyama, “the victory of liberalism has occurred primarily in the realm of ideas or consciousness and is as yet incomplete in the real world.When success takes precedence over integrity, and politics is dominated by money, the political process deteriorates. Crucially too, others maintain that procedural analyses fail to engage in the fundamental consideration of “the most basic moral convictions that should govern the development of public policies.” The skin-deepness of a without a substantive sense of ‘the good’ could be little more than a thin peaceableness of ever further fracturing cultures.Possibly the most powerful counter-thesis to Fukyama’s vision came not very long afterward with the highly influential but equally controversial book entitled by American political scientist of Harvard University, Samuel Huntingdon. The titular phrase had been alarmistly coined by Bernard Lewis in 1957 in a prediction that by the end of the twentieth century Europe would be Islamic.